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UI - Disertasi Membership :: Kembali

Pemarkah prosodik kontras deklaratif dan interogatif bahasa Melayu Kutai: kajian fonetik eksperimental dan psikoakustik

Sugiyono; Masinambow, Eduard Karel Markus, promotor (Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Budaya Universitas Indonesia, 2003)


This study is aimed to find out how the prosodic markers characterize the contrast of declarative and interrogative utterances both in the production and perception perspectives. The research is based on the assumption that studying prosody as a part of the symbols system has to set the prosody completely on the interaction domain, involve how the speaker organizes the prosody component concurrently with segmental and lexical items to enunciate the meaning and how in fact the hearer distinguishes the prosodic symbols to perceive the meaning of the utterance. As well as to find the prosodic marker either an individual part or their configuration to construct melodic and temporal structures, the study is also intended to measure each of the relevant variables within the two structures.
In the production experiment I found that the component of melodic structure such as the reference pitch or initial pitch in tout contour (nada dasar), final pitch (nada final), peak(s) (puncak nada), and pitch range (jam nada.) as well as duration significantly mark the contrast of declarative. and interrogative utterances. In general, the study came to the conclusion that
1. Declaratives reference is about 9.13 st and this is 1 st higher then interrogative reference.
2. The final pitch of declarative is about 7.28 st and it is about 2 st lower than the interrogatives final pitch Compare to the reference, the declarative final pitch feature negative excursion and the interrogative final pitch features positive excursion.
3. The peak(s) excursion of declarative utterances is only about 0.95 st above the reference and this is significantly different from interrogatives peaks, which is about 231 above the reference. Relative to the onset, the peaks are 5.46 st in declaratives contour and 3.14 st in interrogatives.
4. In term of pitch movement (alirnada), the contrasts are mark by the final pitch movement. The contours are closed by flat rise followed fall tail (DNt) in declaratives and by rise followed fall tail (Nt) in interrogatives. Both, declaratives and interrogatives contour started by fall-rise (TN) movement.
5. Moreover, concerning temporal characteristics, the study concludes that the contrast of declarative and interrogatives is marked by lengthening of the syllable at the final constituent It appears that on top of the peak(s), the speaker also indicates the constituent boundaries with length of syllable and the syllabic lengthening that happens at the end of utterance is greater.
In the perception experiment, I found that the declaratives base stimuli could be perceived as fully declarative with perfect intonation if the pitch range of the contour ranges between 3 st to 35 st. In term of excursion size, minimum contour is characterized by P1 onset at the same level of reference (0 st or no excursion), Pi and P2 with excursed 1 st and final pitch excursed about -2 st (or 2 st under the reference). Maximum contour is characterized by P1 onset with excursion approximately -20.11 st P2 about 15.21 st, P2 about 14.28 st, and final pitch -15.53 st
The study did not find minimum contour of interrogative base stimuli since there is no stimulus perceived as perfect interrogative utterance - positively caused by extremely small step size value in stimulus manipulation. However, I found the maximum contour of interrogative base stimuli found with 36 st pitch range which is characterized by onset PI with excursion about -16.6 st, followed, by Pi with 15.8 st, P2 with 19.39 st, and final pitch with 16.04 st
On searching of contrastive threshold, I found that interrogative utterances more sensitive to the prosodic change than declarative utterances. More than 95% of interrogative base stimuli are perceived as declarative, while only about 422% of declarative base stimuli are perceives as interrogative utterance. Regarding excursion, the declarative base stimuli which is initiate interrogative perception has 1.4 st P2 onset, more than 4.3 st
P2, and about 2.4 st excursion of final pitch. On the other hand, the interrogative base stimuli would initiate declarative perception when the stimuli hold and excursion of the P2 onset as much as 03 st with about 1.9 st excursion of P2 and -3.6 st final pitch excursion. In the two base stimuli, the range of syllabic length manipulation is 20% to 60% of the original duration.
Compared to the acoustic characteristics in their utterances, it seems that the speaker of the language can perceived more than that they produce. The pitch range of their utterances distributes from 5 st to 22 st, but the can perceive stimuli as perfect utterances in range of 3 st to 35 st. They are also able to perceive much higher peaks and final pitch excursion then what they can produce.

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Jenis Koleksi : UI - Disertasi Membership
No. Panggil : D495
Entri utama-Nama orang :
Entri tambahan-Nama orang :
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Program Studi :
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Penerbitan : Depok: Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Budaya Universitas Indonesia, 2003
Bahasa : ind
Sumber Pengatalogan :
Tipe Konten : text
Tipe Media : unmediated ; computer
Tipe Carrier : volume ; online resource
Deskripsi Fisik : xxiii, 302 pages : illustration ; 29 cm + appendix
Naskah Ringkas :
Lembaga Pemilik : Universitas Indonesia
Lokasi : Perpustakaan UI, Lantai 3
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D495 07-17-848440665 TERSEDIA
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